The Industry

Want an overview of the Canadian space industry and the public policy and political issues associated with it?

Then check out these freely available online publications from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and the Paris, France based Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

According to the Space Economy at a Glance 2014, a "statistical overview of the global space sector and its contributions to economic activity," compliled by the OECD:
Canada has a well-developed space industry, including about 200 private companies, in addition to research institutions and universities, some of which have some commercial activities.
The ten biggest companies accounted for almost 88% of revenues and 64% of employment (Canadian Space Agency, 2013). Space manufacturing is mainly located in Ontario (more than half of the workforce) and in Quebec (19% of workforce). Some 7,993 people were employed in the space sector in 2012, an increase compared to 2011, with more than half defined as “highly” qualified’ (engineers, scientists and technicians). 
Total Canadian space sector revenues amounted in 2012 to 3.3Bln CDN, a 4.5% decrease as compared to 2011 (Canadian Space Agency, 2013). 
Satellite communications applications and services generated the largest revenue share, followed by the earth observation sector. The applications and services segment generated two thirds of total revenues...
Of course, the data used in the OECD publication had to come from somewhere and most of the OECD numbers were referenced from the 2012 State of the Canadian Space Sector Report, which was released in January 2014 by the CSA.

The 2012 CSA report was discussed in the January 24th, 2014 post, "Canadian Space Industry Shrinks While International Markets Grow!"

The latest CSA report is the 2016 State of the Canadian Space Sector, which was released in July 2018 and discussed in the July 26, 2018 post, "Assessing the 2016 State of the Canadian Space Sector Report."

As discussed in that post, there has been a six year stagnation in Canadian space focused activities going back to 2010, which shows no signs of abating. In part, the stagnation reflects the international markets which also stagnated during that period, although the Canadian decline is generally considered more severe.

The key metrics and statistics used to measure the space sector by the CSA and others are explained in the OECD Handbook on Measuring the Space Economy.

Meant to be complementary to the Space Economy at a Glance report, both documents are updated every few years and available on the OECD website.

The CSA report on the "Comprehensive Socio-Economic Impact Assessment of the Canadian Space Sector," completed in March 2015 but only released in June 2016, was developed using OECD methodologies in an effort to "capture the economic argument for investment in space."

The report was discussed in the June 3rd 2016 post, "Canadian Space Agency Releases "Comprehensive Socio-Economic Impact Assessment of the Canadian Space Sector" and the June 12th, 2016 post, "A Quick Conversation with Euroconsult on the "Comprehensive Socio-Economic Impact Assessment of the Canadian Space Sector."

The OECD also covers the economic argument for the investment in space.

The OECD Space and Innovation Report, published on October 27th, 2016, notes that "after decades of innovation, satellites now play a discrete but pivotal role in the efficient functioning of modern societies and their economic development."

The report was compiled using data collected from the OECD Space Forum project on the state of innovation in the space sector, with a view to examine how space innovation may impact the larger economy.

According to the paper:
New analysis and indicators contribute to answering some of the following questions: is the space sector still a driver for innovation in the 21st century? What are the determinants for an innovative space sector? And what are the policy responses to encourage and harness better space-related innovation? 
After becoming familiar with the publications described above, even the most casual of space geeks will possess a working knowledge of the public policy issues associated with the space industry.

And that's a good thing.

Knowledgeable people who understand the context and constraints under which existing policies were developed are dangerous, capable of bending the political process to their will and well able to build better policies.

For those who'd like to get a little more granular, below is a partial list of:
  1. The business and entrepreneur focused organizations useful to Canada's space industry (last updated in April 2018).
  2. The educational facilities contributing their expertise (last updated in September 2018)
  3. The government departments of interest (last updated in May 2018)
  4. And the space lobbyists, advocates, activists and groups which try to influence the other three (last updated in April 2018).

1. Business and Entrepreneur Focused Organizations Useful to the Space Industry
Don't wish to spend your days jockeying for academic tenure or begging the government to come up with plans and new funding for the Canadian Space Agency (CSA)? 
Graphic c/o Jeff Koterba, Omaha World Herald.
Then don't! 
It's not well known, but in Canada over half of all research and development comes from the private sector, not academia or government.  
As outlined in the 2015 State of the Canadian Space Sector Report, the most recent report published by the CSA to measure the overall size of the space sector, university and research centre revenues amounted to only $125Mln CDN in 2015, or only 2.4% of the total $5.3Bln CDN revenue measured from all sources.
That's right. Only 2.4% are traditional academics. The real muscle of the space industry derives from business and entrepreneurial activities. It's unfortunate that industry contributions have been dismissed and diminished by academics and their advocates over the last decade or so. 
It's also unfortunate that this total has been slowly shrinking as other political jurisdictions, including the US and the Isle of Mann, have become more appealing places to start and grow a space or innovation focused business.
But for now and at least until the last of our current crop of innovators turns out the lights and leaves the country, here are a few of the best places in Canada to find the real space sector, working for a living and solving Canadian problems.

The Aerospace Industries Association of Canada (AIAC) - As earlier discussed in the April 19th, 2018 post, "The 2018 Listing of Canadian Space Lobbyists, Advocates, Activists and Groups," the AIAC is the biggest and the most important player connecting the Canadian space industry.

This not-for-profit business association and lobby group, focused around aerospace policy issues, lists over 120 corporate members in its current members directory.

They include almost all of the current aerospace suppliers in Canada such as Montreal, PQ based ABB Canada, Ottawa, ON based Airbus Defence and Space Canada, Ottawa, ON based Boeing Canada Operations, Ottawa, ON based Bombardier Aerospace, St-Laurent, QC based CAE and Ottawa, ON based Lockheed Martin Canada.
Also included are most of the known players in the domestic space industry, including Cambridge, ON based exactEarth Ltd., Mississauga, ON based Magellan Aerospace, Brampton, ON based MDA, Kanata, ON based Neptec Design Group, Ottawa, ON based Satellite Canada Innovation Network, Ottawa ON based Telesat Canada, Vancouver BC based UrtheCast Corporation and Montreal PQ based Xiphos Systems Corporation
The Canadian regional chapter of the Association of Manufacturing Excellence (AME) - A part of the larger, international Association of Manufacturing Excellence (AME), with chapters across the US, the UK and Australia.
Whether on Earth or in space, things still need to be manufactured and AME is the leading industry-diverse community with more than 4,000 professionals dedicated to enterprise excellence, continuous improvement, lean methodologies and kaizen techniques in manufacturing. 
Now, if only someone could bring them up to speed on open design concepts3D-printing and what's going on at places like Hacklab.TO.
ThCanadian Advanced Technology Alliance (CATA Alliance) – The largest hi-tech association in Canada and another one of the organizations which, as outlined in the April 19th, 2018 post, "The 2018 Listing of Canadian Space Lobbyists, Advocates, Activists and Groups" is active both as a business association and as a lobby group.
Originally focused on software and telecommunications, CATA provides good background materials on government programs related to innovation, such as the Federal government Scientific Research and Experimental Development (SR&ED) tax credit, the CATA Innovation Nation National Campaign (designed to boost Canada’s competitiveness and innovation rankings) and other initiatives. 
Not specifically an aerospace or space focused organization, but knowledgeable on many of the same taxation, innovation and business issues faced by the aerospace industry.  
The Canadian Association of Defense and Security Industries (CADSI) – The “voice” the Canadian defense and security industries, with "more than 800 companies from across Canada that provide innovative, world-class products and services needed for a modern, flexible force capable of defending Canada and Canadian interests."
CADSI membership overlaps with the AIAC and covers much the same territory, since both are focused on selling and promoting high technology to the Federal government. But its still a useful place for space companies to get to know, especially those firms focused on Earth imaging, rocketry, "internet of things," artificial intelligence (AI) or "big data" offerings. 
After all, there are very few military communications, command, and control (C3) capabilities in our current age which can't be purchased as a service from civilian space satellite contractors like Airbus, Google, Maxar (which owns MDA) and ViaSat. 
CANSEC organizes the annual CANSEC defence trade show, which will be held from May 30th - 31st in Ottawa, ON. 
The Betakit sponsored Canadian Start-up Map - A useful repository of start-up expertise which includes tech start-ups (500+), start-up investors (65+), co-working spaces (100+), useful services (30+), accelerators (55+) and community facilities (8). Built by Toronto ON based start-up mentor INcubes and Toronto ON based digital marketing firm Qoints.

The Canadian Venture Capital & Private Equity Association (CVCA) – With over 250 members and over $105Bln in capital under management by those members, the CVCA represents the majority of private equity companies in Canada.
Focused on venture capital (investment in early stage, mostly technology based companies), mezzanine financing (subordinated debt or preferred stock with an equity kicker) and buyout funding (risk investment in established private or publicly listed firms that are undergoing a fundamental change in operations or strategy). 
If you can't find funding through this group, you need to either visit Silicon Valley or update your pitch deck. Maybe both.
The Commercial SpaceFlight Federation (CSF) – A non-Canadian based space advocacy group well worth emulating.
The 40 businesses and organizations who are members of the CSF provide a comprehensive snapshot of the emerging international NewSpace industry. 
Members include Los Vegas, NV based Bigelow Aerospace, Kent WA based Blue Origin, Westminster, CO based Maxar Technologies (which owns Brampton, ON based MDA), the Mohave, CA based Mohave Air and Spaceport, Cape Canaveral, FL based Moon Express, Redmond, WA based Planetary Resources, Hawthorne, CA based SpaceX plus quite a number of others.
Focused around a variety of legislative, economic and lobbying issues relating to spaceflight including export control issues, funding issues and regulatory requirements.
The Consortium for Aerospace Research and Innovation in Canada (CARIC) – CARIC is a joint initiative of the Aerospace Industries Association of Canada (AIAC) and the Consortium for Research and Innovation in Aerospace in Québec (CRIAQ) to create "a national research and technology network that unites stakeholders from industry, universities, colleges and research institutions" across Canada.
CARIC uses the Consortium for Research and Innovation in Aerospace in Québec (CRIAQ) funding and collaborative model in order to remain in operation.
The Delta-V NewSpace Alliance - Australia's first start-up space accelerator. 
Since January 2016, Australian space startups Saber AstronauticsMyriotaFleet Space TechnologiesGilmour Space TechnologiesHypercubesCuberiderNeumann Space and Earth-AI have raised nearly A$20Mln ($19.5Mln CDN) in private angel and venture funding from firms such as Blackbird VenturesGrok Ventures500Startups and many others to jump-start the Australian space industry.
In March 2017, the Space Industry Association of Australia (SIAA) released a white paper calling on the Australian government to institute a proper space industry policy, and suggested the creation of an Australian Space Agency to unlock "burgeoning potential." 
The vision is to "create a new industry ecosystem drawing together fragmented groups – SMEs, university and industry R&D teams, startups, students, local, state and federal governments, and big companies – around a theme of deliberate entrepreneurship."
Certainly not Canadian, but absolutely full of useful advocacy lessons for Canadians.
Deltion Innovations – Billed as "Sudbury's first aerospace company" and focused on the design and fabrication of terrestrial and space mining systems.
Deltion CEO Dale Boucher helps to organize the annual Planetary and Terrestrial Mining Sciences Symposium and was originally part of the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology (NORCAT).
The various European Space Agency (ESA) Business Incubation Centres (ESI) and the European Space Incubators Network (ESINET) – The ESA spends a lot of time and effort supporting small and innovative space focused firms. The work done through these two organizations is well worth investigating for lessons which are also applicable for Canada.

The Intellectual Property Institute of Canada (IPEC) – A national association comprised of over 1,700 members from Canada and abroad.
Members include patent agents, trade-mark agents and lawyers specializing in intellectual property. 
This is the first stop on the line if you're a rocket scientist looking to protect your trade secrets or intellectual property. 
The Information Technology Association of Canada (ITAC) - Not especially space related (unless you're familiar with the partnerships developed in Great Britain between the IT and space advocacy communities, which led to the creation of the UK Space Agency in 2010), but another one of those organizations heavily involved in much the same issues of government procurement, innovation and commercialization.
Even better, many of the entrepreneurial leaders in the current NewSpace community (Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos, for example) started in IT.

The panel chair of the 2012 Review of Federal Support to Research and Development (the "Jenkins panel," which directly effected Industry Canada (IC) and Canadian Space Agency (CSA) activities) was Tom Jenkins, then the executive chairman and chief strategy officer of Waterloo based Open Text Corporation, a member in good standing of ITAC.
Well worth learning more about.
A listing of 100+ firms which provide support and capital to Canadian technology entrepreneurs from Maple Leaf Start-ups - An interactive assessment tool from start-up marketer Marc Evans, on where to go to get funding and support for Canadian start-ups.
The list is divided up into business incubators and accelerators, angel investors, plus seed, series A and series B funding sources. Derived from the Canadian Start-up Financing Landscape info-graphic.
The MaRS Discovery District – A Toronto business incubator focused on the medical and IT industries but open to new ideas.
Maintains the MaRS Funding Sources Directory, a listing of provincial, national and international funding sources suitable for Ontario companies in both the public and private sectors.
Mitacs – A national, not-for-profit research organization focused on building "partnerships between academia, industry, and the world – to create a more innovative Canada."
Offers a suite of research and training programs "which enable companies to connect with top Canadian and international researchers." 
The MoneyTree Report on Venture Capital investment in the United States - A quarterly report compiled by Price-Waterhouse Coopers (PWC) and the US based National Venture Capital Association (NVCA).
The quarterly report tracks venture capital activity in the United States by region, industry, funding stage, financing sequence, investing fund and receiving firm.
The National Angel Capital Organization (NACO) – An organization of Canadian angel capital investors connecting individuals, groups, and other partners supporting angel-stage investing.
Published the 2017 Report on Angel Investing Activity in Canada using data compiled from thirty-five angel groups across Canada, representing 3300 active Angels, who made 418 investments amounting to $157.2Mln CDN in 2017.
NACO also provides intelligence, tools and resources for its members; facilitates key connections across networks, borders and industries and helps to inform policy affecting the "angel asset-class" and organizes a variety of regional and national level events for the angel investment community.
National Crowd Funding Association of Canada (NCFA) - An organization billing itself as "Canada’s crowd funding hub," the NCFA works closely with industry groups, government, academia, other business associations and affiliates to create a strong and vibrant crowd funding industry and voice across Canada.
Has recently moved into Fintech, P2P, acternative finance, blockchain and cryptocurrency opportunities for Investors, companies and online financing platforms
NewSpace Global (NSG) – Provides accurate and critical information on international NewSpace focused organizations and opportunities.
NSG publishes a variety of items for subscribers, including the always up to date NewSpace Watch online news service and the Observer company database, which tracks the top international NewSpace companies.
Subscribers include Fortune 500s, universities, government agencies, small and large corporations, and space industry investors.
NewSpace Ventures - The company tracks and maintains a worldwide listing of +1500 new and lesser-known NewSpace companies, products, projects, and services.
Like many of the other sites on this list, NewSpace Ventures provides a veritable cornucopia of useful data.
The Ontario Aerospace Council - One of several regional, not for profit associations of aerospace firms across Canada tasked with enhancing industry competitiveness.
Others include Aero Montreal, the Aerospace Industry Association of British Columbia (AIABC), the Manitoba Aerospace Association and the Unmanned Vehicle Systems Canada (UVS).
Add caption
The Space Angels Network – an American based network of angel investors that also accepts investors and clients from Canada and Europe.
Has an interesting portfolio which includes Toronto, ON based Kepler Communications and Waterloo, ON based Skywatch
The Space Frontier Foundation - US based advocacy group which believes that the barriers to space exploration are "primarily found in the bureaucratic status-quo of the government space program," and that change must come externally, through entrepreneurship.
Organizers of the annual NewSpace business plan competition.
Start-Up Canada – Entrepreneur led, national movement to enhance the nation’s competitiveness and prosperity by supporting and celebrating Canadian entrepreneurship. – An online community of over 20,000 CEOs, founders and entrepreneurs who get together to discuss fundraising, rate and review angel investors and venture capitalists, and exchange ideas for strategies to grow start-up businesses.
The site also acts as a peer review website that allows users to post anonymous ratings and reviews of venture capital investment firms.  
It's a part of the Founder Institute.

Venture Capital in the NewSpace Economy, Global Trends and Facts - This May 2017 publication from the Government of South Australia, tracked the increase of venture capital investment in the international space industry over the last fifteen years and came to some fascinating conclusions.
Well worth reading.

2. Educational Facilities
Although the private sector contributes the majority of domestic research and development funding for Canada's aerospace sector, government funding in this area is often tied to academia through research grants.
From "The Relationship Diremption," the twentieth episode of the seventh season of the American sitcom "The Big Bang Theory," which often makes interesting observations on the motivations of scientists and academics. This episode originally aired on Thursday, April 10th, 2014. Graphic c/o Big Bang Theory Wiki.

It's worth noting that, while overall academic R&D funding was boosted substancially in the 2018 Federal budget, funding for the hard sciences may be drying-up over the next few years, due to increased political concerns over its usefulness to the domestic economy.  

After all, with up to half of all graduating space scientists and aerospace engineers needing to leave the country to find their first job after graduation, there is some reasonable concern that the investment made in their schooling may not be recouped if graduates don't pay Canadian taxes or contribute their expertise to the Canadian economy.

Current Canadian Space Agency (CSA) academic initiatives are focused around the Canadian CubeSat Project (CCP) which, as outlined in the May 7th, 2018 post, "Canadian Cubesat Project Finally Moving Forward," is a professor led initiative funding fifteen cubesat and space focused proposals from Canadian based post-secondary institutions.
Of course, and as outlined both below and on the CSA web page focused on the quarterly "Disclosure of grants and contributions awards," the CCP is certainly not the only active CSA academic initiative. 
The CCP also bears more than a passing resemblance in structure and goals to the private sector Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CSDC) a lower cost, student led initiative which, as outlined in the November 30th, 2017 post, "Update on the 2017 Canadian Satellite Design Challenge," has been attemping to perform much the same function as the CCP since 2011. 
Below is a partial listing of the more noteworthy academic institutions with connections to the space and aerospace industry.

The Aurora College Aurora Research Institute (ARI) - This research centre in Inuvik was created by what was then known as the Federal government department of Indian and Northern Affairs in 1964 to provide support for scientific research in the North West Territories (NWT) and Northern Yukon.
The ARI contribution to the CCP is the AuroraSat project, the creation of a "globally interactive game for amateur radio operators" and the cultivation of northern voices in indigenous languages, using cubesat technology.

Academic partners include the University of Alberta, the University of Alberta North, Nunavut Arctic College, Yukon College. Government collaborators on the AuroraSat project include the Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure, a department of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan).
The List of Canada's Top 50 Research Colleges - An annual listing of Canada's top research colleges tracked by amounts allocated and areas of expertise.
It's best read in conjunction with the list of Canada's Top 50 Research Universities and the list of Canada's Top 100 Corporate R&D Spenders
Taken together, those three lists put a lie to the common Canadian perception that most domestic research and development (R&D) is funded by academics through universities.
In fact, the majority of Canadian R&D activities are funded through the private sector. Public sector and academic R&D initiatives are typically tied (via granting agencies such as the National Research Council) to ongoing private sector initiatives, in order to maximize their effectiveness and the public relations benefits for the granting organizations.
The data from the three lists is compiled annually by Toronto ON based Research Infosource. The 2018 lists are expected to be released later this fall..
The Canadian Universities Website - A useful overview of academic expertise in this area covering universities and colleges from "Canada's higher education and career guide."
Of particular note is the listing of Space Science Scholarships in Canada. Other academic sectors can also be accessed from the search page.
Canadore College - Ex-Federal conservative MP Jay Aspin's plans to turn this sleepy community college into an "international high tech business hub" ran aground with the 2015 Federal election (which threw the ruling conservatives out of office) and the 2016 bankruptcy of a key partner, the Payerne, Switzerland based Swiss Space Systems (SSS).
As outlined in the January 24th, 2017 post, "Swiss Court Confirms Swiss Space Systems Bankruptcy But CEO Jaussi Might Buy Assets and Start Over," the centerpiece of that plan was an attempt to launch a "mini-space shuttle" from the Jack Garland Airport in North Bay, ON.
Maybe one day, the good times will return. 
Carleton University - The university Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering is the home of the Carleton Mechanical and Aerospace Society (CMAS) and the CU3SAT micro-satellite project, which competed in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CSDC).
The Carleton Aerospace faculty is one of the largest and the most comprehensive academic aerospace research programs in Canada with a wide range of unique, state-of-the-art research facilities. 
Concordia University - Home of the Concordia Institute of Aerospace Design and Innovation (CIADI), which promotes "awareness and provide leading edge know-how among engineering students engaged in aerospace design and innovation."
Concordia is also home to Space Concordia, a team of  engineering students which competed in the CSDC (they won in 2012) and proposed the Concordia Hyperspectral Imager and Radiation-Tolerant Satellite (CHIRad-Sat) as their contribution to the current CCP program. 
CHIRad-Sat will test an imaging instrument to collect data on dust measurements and study the effect of climate change in the Kluane Lake region plus evaluate the viability of a new electronic component for future cubesats.
Academic collaborators include the L'Institut polytechnique de Grenoble and Université de Montréal. Industry collaborators include Kalray S.A., MDA, Mission Control Space Services MPB Communications and the Spectrum Aerospace. Governmental/NGO collaborators include Let's Talk Science, a national, charitable organization focused on education and outreach to support youth development.
    Dalhousie University - Home of the Dalhousie University CubeSat (DUCS), one of the East coast contributions to the CCP.
    DUCS will test a new cubesat frame made out of lightweight metal alloys and validate the use of innovative onboard solar energy and battery storage technology to power a stabilization wheel to better control the position of the satellite's instruments. 
    Industry collaborators include IMP Aerospace and Xeos Technologies.
    Laurentian University – In partnership with Science North, Laurentian offers the comprehensive Science Communication graduate program, which covers "the theory underlying good communication as well as the practical challenges of effectively communicating science and the issues involving science in society."

    McGill University - Home of the McGill Institute of Air and Space Law, focused on "training aviation and space focused lawyers to serve throughout the world."
    McGill is also home to the Centre for Research in Air & Space Law, which acts as a research arm for the Institute of Air and Space Law.
    The faculty maintains close relationships with the American Bar Association (ABA) Forum Committee on Air and Space Law, organizes conference on the topic and publishes the Annals of Space Law Journal.
    McMaster University - This Hamilton ON based public university entry in the CCP program is the McMaster NEUDOSE cubesat mission, which is designed to measure the amount of radiation to which astronauts could be exposed during spacewalks.
    The NEUDOSE academic collaborator is Mohawk College. The industry collaborator is Bubble Technology Industries and the government/NGO collaborator on the program is the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. 
    Memorial University of Newfoundland - The St. John's, NL based public university entry in the CCP program is the Killick-1, a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) reflectometry cubesat for measuring sea ice thickness and extent.
    The academic collaborator is the University of Prince Edward Island and the industry collaborator is C-CORE.
    The Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics- A basic research centre dedicated to "exploring the world around us at its most fundamental level."
    The institute supports over 80 resident researchers and a vigorous visitor program of cross-disciplinary research in condensed matter, cosmology & gravitation, particle physics, quantum foundations, quantum gravity, quantum information theory, superstring theory and other related areas.
    Polytechnics Canada - The "voice of leading research-intensive, publicly funded colleges and institutes of technology."
    The organization is a strong advocate for moving at least some of the government money focused on R&D out of universities and into community colleges and trade schools. 
    Queens University - Home of the annual student run Queen's Space Conference (QSC), aimed at connecting university student-delegates with leading professionals in the space industry.

    Royal Military College (RMC) - The Department of Space Science program at RMC offers both undergraduate and graduate programs with specialization focused around theoretical, experimental and observational aspects of space science: from space mission analysis, mission and payload design, remote sensing, satellite tracking, ionospheric physics and space weather, and astronomy and astrophysics.

    Ryerson University - Possesses a well respected Engineering Graduate Program, which focuses on aerodynamics and propulsion, aerospace structures, manufacturing, avionics and aerospace systems and has some overlap in technologies, with the space industry.
    The Department of Computer Sciences Graduate Studies is a hotbed of AI research and development. 
    Simon Fraser University (SFU) - Home of the SFU Satellite Design Team (SAT), which is contributing to both the CCP, as a subcontractor to the University of Victoria (UVic) on the Optical and Radio Calibration for Atmospheric Attenuation Satellite (ORCAASat) and leading projects for the CSDC and others.
    SFUSAT is primarily responsible for the design of the on-board-computer (OBC), radio communication and the radio calibration source for ORCAASat.
    For an overview of SDT contributions to other projects, check out the November 10th, 2018 Medium post, "SFU SAT an Introduction." 
    Universities Canada - The "voice of Canadian universities," at least according to their website,
    It's a useful first stop when building an inventory of Canadian educational facilities focused on science, engineering, space activities or anything else. 
    According to their website, the organization "advances the mission of our 96 member institutions to transform lives, strengthen communities and find solutions to the most pressing challenges facing our world" by
    • Advocating for Canadian universities at the federal level
    • Providing a forum for university leaders to share ideas and address challenges in higher education
    • Supporting students by providing online information on university study and offering scholarships on behalf of private sector companies
    • Fostering collaboration among universities and governments, the private sector, communities and international partners to help build a better world
    The organization also publishes the annual "Directory of Canadian Universities."
    The University of Alberta - Home to both the Centre for Earth Observation Sciences (CEOS), which uses Earth observation and imaging technology to monitor environmental changes, manage resources and formulate sustainable development policies, and the Institute for Space Science, Exploration and Technology (ISSET), a pioneering interdisciplinary centre for planetary and space research.
    The university also hosts the annual Canada-Norway Student Sounding Rocket (CaNoRock) exchange program and is home to the AlbertaSat team, which competed in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge and managed to become the only team to actually loft their Ex-Alta 1 satellite into orbit. 
    As outlined in the  June 5th, 2017 CSA press release, "Successful launch of Ex-Alta 1, University of Alberta's CubeSat, from the International Space Station," the cubesat was deployed from the International Space Station (ISS) into a low Earth orbit on May 26th, 2017.
    Their current contribution to the CCP program is the Ex-Alta 2 cubesat, a platform for the orbital demonstration of a digital fluxgate magnetometer designed at the University of Alberta. Ex-Alta 2 will also connect and share data with the QB50 constellation, an international network of cubesats managed by the Rhode-Saint-Genèse, Belgium based von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, using an onboard Langmuir probe and digital fluxgate magnetometer.
    Academic collaborators on the project include Aurora College, the University of Calgary, the University of Iowa, the University of Oslo, the University of Saskatchewan, York University, Yukon College and the Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics.
    The University of British Columbia (UBC) - Home of the student led UBC Orbit team which competed in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge and of Dr. Jaymie Matthews, who acts as chief scientist and principal investigator for the Microvariability & Oscillations of STars (MOST) micro-satellite.
    UBC boasts a number of of other student led, competitive aerospace focused teams, including the UBC AeroDesign team, the UBC Mars Colony team and the UBC Rocket team. 
    UBC is also the home of the Outer Space Institute. Organized by UBC professors Aaron Boley (the Canada Research Chair in planetary astronomy) and Michael Byers (the Canada Research Chair in global politics), the new institute will focus on space resources and the interplay of international law and relations, in space.
    The University of Calgary - Home of the Institute for Space Research, which is part of the Department of Physics and focused on space plasma, aural imaging and the analysis and modeling of those phenomena.
    One of their more useful projects of note is the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP), a scientific payload for the CAScade, Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer (CASSIOPE), satellite, a mission focused on telecommunications advances and solar weather research, which was funded by the CSA.
    A team from the University of Calgary also competed in the 2014 Canadian Satellite Design Challenge.
    The University of Guelph - Home to the Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility (CESRF) and its Space and Advanced Life Support Agriculture program.

    As outlined most recently in the August 9th, 2018 post, "Could Space Industry Funding Come From Canada's New Cannabis Industry?," the facility is generally considered to be a essential part of Canada's contributions to plant research and development for space and closed environment related activities.
    The facility maintains useful connections with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and retains the strong support of NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) community.
    The University of Manitoba -  The university is home to the Advanced Satellite Integration Facility (ASIF), a 6,000-square-foot area, large enough to accommodate up to three satellites at various stages of assembly. It includes an ISO Class 8 clean room facility to satisfy the requirements of current and future Canadian government satellite programs.
    As outlined in the March 4th, 2015 UM Today article, "Partners in space, U of M and Magellan Aerospace to build satellites," the ASIF facility built the three satellite buses being used for the uncoming RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM). 
    The UofM is also home to the University of Manitoba Space Applications and Technology Society (UMSATS), which competed in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge
    The UofMs current contribution to the CCP is Manitoba SAT-1, which will study the composition of asteroids and the Moon.
    Academic collaborators include the Interlake School Division, the University of Winnipeg and York University. The industry collaborator is Magellan Aerospace.
    The University of New Brunswick - This Fredricton and St. John based university entry in the CCP program is the CubeSat NB, a project designed to provide new insights into the behaviour of Earth’s ionosphere.
    CubeSat NB will receive signals transmitted by global navigation satellite systems, such as GPS, as they travel through the ionosphere and are affected by it.
    Academic collaborators include the Saint John Campus of New Brunswick Community College and the University of Moncton. 
    The University of Prince Edward Island - This Charlottetown based university entry in the CCP program is the SpudNik-1, a cubesat-based high-resolution imaging system for precision agriculture being developed through the Department of Physics and the Faculty of Sustainable Design Engineering.
    Academic collaborators include Memorial University of Newfoundland and the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology. The industry collaborator is C-Core.
    The University of Saskatchewan - Home of the University of Saskatchewan Space Design Team (USST), a student run organization which dominated the 2011 NASA sponsored Space Elevator Games, competed in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CSDC) and most recently participated in the 2018 University Rover Challenge.
    The university is also home to the Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies (ISAS), which maintains strong Federal links to the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) through its contributions to the Canadian Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) for the Swedish ODIN satellite, the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) mission, the various Canadian Geo-space Monitoring (CGSM) programs and the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC).
    ISAS maintains international research connections through the Climate And Weather of the Sun-Earth System (CAWSES) program, the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) and the Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (AMISR) program.
    The University of Saskatchewan contribution to the CCP program is IDRSat, which will study how materials degrade in space by looking at how useful construction materials are affected by extreme temperatures, radiation, and space debris in low Earth orbit, and by studying material changes in colour, texture, brittleness, and electrical conductivity. 
    Academic collaborators include Saskatchewan Polytechnic and the University of Alberta. Industry collaborators include Innocorps Research Corporation and SED Systems.
    Université de Sherbrooke - This Sherbrooke based university has contributed UdeSat as its entry into the CCP program. The cubesat will conduct one of the first demonstrations of a quantum sensor in space.
    The academic collaborator for the project is the École nationale d'aéronautique. 
    Oddly enough, and as outlined in the September 16th, 2004 Liaison post, "UdeSat I : un appareil très petit pour des usages infiniment grands," an earlier UdeSat microsat, also originating from the Université de Sherbrooke, was once tested in microgravity during parabolic flights organized by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Bordeaux, France, but never went to orbit.
    The University of Toronto - Home to both the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS) Space Flight Laboratory (SFL), the first Canadian academic institution able to build low cost spacecraft, micro-satellites and nano-satellites, and the Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics (CITA).
    As the "big boy" of academic space activities in Canada, the UTIAS-SFL collaborates with business, government and academic institutions on the development of new space technologies and strengthening the Canadian skill base in space systems engineering but has no formal contribution to the CCP.
    Recent UTIAS-SFL satellites have included the Brite Constellation of micro-satellitesAISSAT-2 (a follow-on from the very successful AISSAT-1) and the Maritime Monitoring and Messaging Microsatellite (M3MSat). The facility also has close relationships with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), Bombardier, the NASA Ames Research Center, MDA and multiple foreign governments.
    As well, the University of Toronto is the home of the University of Toronto Aerospace Team (last discussed in the April 3rd, 2017 post, "UofT Undergraduate Satellite Builders Raise Almost $500K to Build & Launch a Microsatellite in 2019"), the UofT Entrepreneurship Hatchery (which includes the UofT Idea Market) and the UofT Rotman School Creative Destruction Labs, which includes an AI, a quantum and a space focused start-up stream.
    The University of Victoria - Home of the optical and radio calibration of atmospheric attenuation cubesat (ORCA2Sat), which is UVICs contribution to the CCP.
    The cubesat will develop and test new advancements in technology to better understand “dark energy,” an enigmatic form of energy making up 75% of the universe believed to cause the universe to expand at an accelerating rate. 
    Academic collaborators include Harvard University, Simon Fraser University, the Technical University of Lisbon and the University of British Columbia. The industry collaborator is Space Systems Loral and the governmental/NGO collaborator is the National Research Council.
    The University of Waterloo - The home of Canada's largest engineering faculty (divided up into several different schools and research centres, most notably Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering), the university faculty has contributed to a variety of space focused projects. 
    These include the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory, the VASCULAR and BP-Reg medical experiments conducted in 2012-13 aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Commander Chris Hadfield (who joined the Waterloo faculty in 2014) and a proposed micro-satellite mission (the Quantum EncrYption and Science Satellite or QEYSSat) that would demonstrate long-distance quantum key distribution from space. 
    The university also hosts the Waterloo Space Society (WSS), which organizes and promotes space-related events at Waterloo and within the larger community. WSS has two active engineering sub-teams: WatSat which participated in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge and the Waterloo Rocketry Team.
    Western University – Home to the Canadian Lunar Research Network (now a part of the new Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute), the Centre for Planetary Science & Exploration (CPSX) and the co-host of the Canadian Astrobiology Network.
    Western is also the home of Space Matters, an outreach initiative funded by an NSERC PromoScience grant to the CPSX, and supported by the Canadian Association of Science Centres (CASC) along with various other sponsors. 
    Western contains Canada's only graduate program in planetary science, with over 40 PhD and MSc students and a new undergraduate minor degree in planetary science and space exploration
    The university can also boast of its role in development of the Near-Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSAT), the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the proposed 2016 ExoMars Orbiter and EDM mission, plus the proposed ExoMars 2020 mission. It has a close relationships with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the NASA Ames Research CenterMacDonald Dettwiler (MDA) and multiple foreign governments.
    Western's contribution to the CCP is the Western University - Nunavut Arctic College CubeSat Project, which will conduct a flight-test with a novel imaging system for engineering technology demonstration with the potential to provide virtual reality-ready images. 
    Industry collaborators include Canadensys Aerospace and MDA.
    York University - Home of the Lassonde School of Engineering, which includes the department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering and the Earth and Space Science graduate program.
    York scientists, engineers and students have contributed the Phoenix Scout MissionSCISAT (the Canadian Space Agency mission to research the ozone layer), the Canadian Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on NASA’s Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) and the Canadian Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) for the Swedish ODIN satellite. 
    York is also home of the York University Rover Team and the Planetary Exploration Instrumentation Laboratory, which built the OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA) for the NASA Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission. 
    The university contribution to CCP is the educational space science and engineering cubesat experiment (ESSENCE), which will test a Canadian-developed wide-angle camera to observe snow and ice coverage in Northern Canada. The information collected through its images could help map the thawing of Arctic ice and permafrost and give a better picture of the impacts of climate change in the region. 
    Academic collaborators include ICT Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology and the University of Sydney. The industry collaborator is Canadensys Aerospace.
    Yukon College - Whitehorse's contribution to the CCP is YukonSat, which will focus on promoting STEM and engaging the community through a series of initiatives,
    Academic collaborators include Aurora College and the University of Alberta. The governmental/NGO collaborator is Natural Resources Canada.

    3. (Mostly) Canadian Government Departments

    There's substantial overlap between space advocates who believe that Canada needs a "long-term space plan" or a "national space act" to facilitate "global space law progress," and those who believe that national space activities should be centralized around and funded only through the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).

    Cartoon c/o Greg Perry/ Ottawa Citizen
    Of course, Canada spent the first thirty years of our current space age without a national space agency.

    Some of our best work, including the Black Brant suborbital sounding rockets, the Alouette satellite, Telesat opening up communications in the far north, the preliminary work on the first Radarsat, the original Canadarm development and even the early days of the Canadian astronaut program, were all projects developed before the CSA came into existence in 1990.

    Besides, the 2012 David Emerson led Aerospace Review had some seriously damaging things to say about CSA fiscal prudence during the RADARSAT Constellation program, which is certainly part of the reason why CSA hasn't been given a large program to administer since Emerson was released.
     So the CSA isn't the only game in town for those looking for government support to work in the space industry. 
    Here's a representative sampling of a dozen of the more notable and useful options.

    The Canadian Commercial Corporation (CCC) - Established in 1946, the CCC is a federal Crown corporation mandated to promote and facilitate international trade on behalf of Canadian industry (particularly within government markets).
    This is quite useful since Canadian space firms typically sell half or more of their products on the international market.
    CCC offers "commercial advocacy, collaborative project development and foreign contracting expertise to help Canadian exporters secure international contracts with government buyers around the world" and often acts as prime contractor for foreign government purchases from Canada.
    The Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI) - Set up by the Federal government in 1997 to build Canada’s capacity to undertake world-class research and technology development.
    CFI funds a variety of state-of-the-art equipment, laboratories, databases, specimens, scientific collections, computer facilities and organizations which support innovative research.
    The Canadian Government Concierge Service - Tired of slogging through websites trying to access the appropriate government program?
    The mandate of this government organization is to help users find and access programs and services provided by all those other government departments, which bureaucrats believe to be less effective at answering the phone and replying to the e-mails of those looking to learn more. 
    Services covered include fundingresearch and development facilities, industry specific programs, advisory services and the sourcing of industry specific technical experts and focus primarily on accessing programs for small and medium businesses.
    The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) – The federal government agency responsible for Canada’s contributions to the International Space Station (ISS) also acts as Canada's liaison with other national space agencies, the European Space Agency (ESA) and a variety of non-governmental international organizations involved in space activities.
    The CSA was established in March 1989 under the Canadian Space Agency Act and works with the Department of National Defense (DND) on military space focused activities and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) on activities related to international cooperation and technology transfer.

    As per the 2012 Federal Review of Aerospace and Space Programs and Policies (or "Emerson Report"), the CSA acts "as a technical supervisor" in supporting specific committees, supports the Minister of Public Works in negotiating "co-operative agreements with other countries' space agencies," co-manages space technology development (along with the National Research Council), conducts its own research, operates its existing satellite inventory and maintains the Canadian astronaut program.
    The CSA, and Canadian space activities in general, were most recently reviewed by the Federal government appointed Space Advisory Board (SAB), mandated to help "support the development of a new vision for Canada's space sector."
    The SAB report, released on August 17th, 2017 under the title, "Consultations on Canada’s Future in Space: What We Heard," was almost immediately dismissed by the Federal government. Eventually, and as outlined in the March 8th, 2018 post, "Space Advisory Board Chair Admits Disappointment over Budget but Promises to Continue to Support Space Sector," even the head of the SAB expressed public "disappointment" over this response. 
    For more on the expected next steps, it's worth checking out the March 22th, 2018 post, "What Happens After the Failure of the Space Advisory Board?"
    CSA programs are often funded only partially through the CSA, and depend on funds from other areas, such the National Research Council (NRC), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), other government departments, academic institutions and the private sector, to top-up their funding requirements.
    And sometimes, as outlined most recently in the February 28th, 2018 post, ""Big Winners" in Tuesday's Federal Budget," funding for space focused programs doesn't necessarily even need to go through the CSA.
    The current president of the CSA is Sylvain Laporte, who spends at least some of his time privately advocating to protect the CSA's turf from other Federal government departments, and reports directly to Minister of Innovation, Science and Economic Development (ISED), Navdeep Bains.
    It's worth noting that, if there is an important and photogenic CSA announcement to be made to the Canadian public, Minister Bains is usually front and center to make it, not president Laporte.
    The Canadian Trade Commissioners Service for Aerospace - A Federal government service which provides informed assessments of foreign markets for aircraft, spacecraft and space-based services.
    The website includes market reports and important Canadian government contacts. It's part of the larger Canadian Trade Commissioners Service.
    The Department of National Defence (DND) - Home of the Canadian Armed Forces and a variety of other sub-groups and departments, some of which directly relate to space activities and some of which relate more to space assets being used for military command, control and communications (C3) functions.
    For innovators, it's well worth checking out the the $1.6Bln CDN Innovation for Defence Excellence and Security (IDEeS) program, which included funding opportunities for the private sector in the space domain.
    For an overview of who the DND perceives of Canadian military space operations, it's worth checking out the Winter 2015 Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) Journal post, "Integrating Space into Canadian Armed Forces Operations." 
    It's also worth noting that, according to the article, the "USAF has primacy in the space domain for the American military forces," and the Canadian role is mostly to support the US. From a practical perspective, this often means that the Canadian military often purchases services from US military providers, instead of building their own assets. 
    For a recent overview of the Canadian defence industry, check out the May 25th, 2016 Canada Defence Review article on the "Critical Impact of Canada's Defence Industry on Economy."
    For an overview of the current DND procurement requirements, plus an assessment of the increasing importance of government off-set credits, job creation expectations and economic development requirements in overall Federal government procurement policy, it's worth taking a look at the May 28th, 2015 IHS Janes 360 article, "Canadian defence industry overview [CAN2015D2]."
    In July, 2016, as outlined in the November 16th, 2016 Canadian government "Defence Policy Review" website, the DND concluded "an unprecedented public consultation in support of the development of a new defence policy for Canada." The results of that review, are slowly working their way through the Canadian military.
    Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN) - The lead agency for Canadian activities related to the global navigation satellite system (GNSS), remote sensing and Earth imaging.
    Nearly all precise positioning in Canada relies on NRCAN services at some level because of the massive opportunities to drive innovation and efficiencies in the broad national economy. For an overview of these potential efficiencies, check out the March 2011 Royal Academy of Engineering paper on "Global Navigation Space Systems: Reliance and Vulnerabilities."
    NRCAN does face challenges. The 2005 Remote Sensing Systems Act, a piece of legislation last revised in 2007 and sorely in need of updating, currently governs Canadian remote sensing activities. 
    The act is reviewed every five years and was most recently critiqued by the 2017 Independent Review of the Remote Sensing Space Systems Act, written by associate professor Ram S. Jakhu and research assistant Aram Daniel Kerkonian from the Institute of Air and Space Law at McGill University.
    As outlined in the April 20th, 2017 SpaceQ post, "A Review of Canada’s Remote Sensing Law Recommends Creating a New General Outer Space Act." the McGill review found that the original act had fallen behind "the pace of technological change" and recommended the creation of a new "Outer Space Act" able to balance commercial interests with national security needs.
    NRCAN is home to the Canada Centre for Mapping and Earth Observation (CCMEO), once known as the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) and the Canadian Geodetic Survey, which supports and facilitates access to the Canadian Spatial Reference System (CSRS).
    Export Development Canada (EDC) - Canada's export credit agency, this crown corporation works with the CCC and other government agencies to offer up "innovative financing packages" to those looking to expand their international business.
    In 2013, EDC claimed over $5Bln CDN in support to the Canadian aerospace sector, mostly in the form of financing and alternative financing solutions, accounts receivable insurance and bonds to ensure supplier obligations.

    The agency also maintains and manages the ExportWise website, which contains timely articles on export opportunities, analyses of key markets and emerging opportunities, how-to guides and profiles of successful exporters.
    Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (ISED) – The Canadian government department charged with fostering a growing, competitive and knowledge-based Canadian economy.
    ISED oversees the Federal government's economic development, corporate affairs activities and manages Canada's innovation agenda. 
    The head of the CSA reports directly to the head of this ministry and both agencies are governed by a variety of existing IC policies on science and technology including the Mobilizing Science and Technology to Canada’s Advantage Report (May 2007) and the Mobilizing Science and Technology to Canada’s Advantage Progress Report (June 2009).

    These policies enjoy wide bipartisan support among Canadian political parties and were reviewed/ updated by the 2012 Federal Review of Aerospace and Space Programs and Policies (or "Emerson Report," presented to then Industry Minister Christian Paradis in November 2012) and the Review of Federal Support to Research and Development (or "Jenkins panel," which was presented to then Minister of State Gary Goodyear in October 2011).
    More recently, Canada's Fundamental Science Review, also known as the "Naylor Report" was presented to to the Government of Canada on April 10th 2017. As outlined most recently in the April 28th, 2018 University of Toronto News post, "David Naylor upbeat about research funding in Canada, gives kudos to students and researchers for #SupportTheReport," the report led to a substantial increase in Canadian government funding for basic science.
    It includes the National Research Council (NRC), National Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC), the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR), the Networks of Centres of Excellence. and a number of other government departments of interest to the space entrepreneur including the $1.2Bln CDN Strategic Innovation Fund.
    ISED is also the lead agency administering "Canada's New Superclusters," a Federal government program providing up to $950Mln CDN to each of five consortium's composed of business and academic partners, which will be matched dollar for dollar by the private sector, and is expected to create more than 50,000 jobs over ten years and grow Canada's GDP. 
    The National Research Council (NRC) – The primary Canadian government resource for science and technology (S&T) funding.

    The NRC reports to Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (IC), which, as outlined above, focuses Canadian spending in this area around questions of commercialization and (sometimes) basic research.
    The NRC works with the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC), the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR) and the Networks of Centres of Excellence
    NRC is also home to the Build in Canada Innovation Program, designed to help innovators: 
    • Land their first major reference sale with the Canadian government.while retaining the intellectual property 
    • Have their innovation tested in a real-life setting and gain feedback to help get products to market faster.
    The program pays up to $500,000 for non-military innovations and up to $1Mln for military innovations. It targets innovations in 10 priority areas
    The Ontario Centres of Excellence (OCE) - A collaborative network of organizations across Ontario designed to help entrepreneurs, businesses and researchers commercialize their ideas.
    One of the better provincial government offerings in this area although other provincial governments offer many of the same services with greater or lesser degrees of success.

    Collaborative organizations include the Business Development Bank of Canada (BDC), the Centre for Commercialization of Research (CCR), OMERS Ventures, the Ontario Aerospace Council (OAC), the Ontario Network of Entrepreneurs (ONE), the Network of Angel Organizations - Ontario (which administrators the Ontario Angel Network Program) and quite a few others.

    Many Canadian space companies (and even a few academic institutions) receive funding through the OCE or through organizations affiliated with it. 
    However, and as outlined in the December 5th, 2018 Globe and Mail post, "Ottawa to discontinue Networks of Centres of Excellence funding program," the Federal government has announced that it will phase out funding to most OCE's over the next three years. Future funding will go to individual projects and be provided through the Federal government. 
    The United States Office of Space Commerce – Only in Canada would it be possible to suggest that one of the best places to find information on government space policies and initiatives would be a foreign government website.
    But in an age focused on the US International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and its Canadian equivalent, the Controlled Goods Program (CGP), this site provides great background material from the US Department of Commerce relating to commercial space activities, general policy information affecting all areas of commercial space activities, including presidential announcementsinformation on doing business with the US governmentinformation on the US space industrial base and primary documentation relating to satellite export controls.
    According to the website, the office "is the principal unit for space commerce policy activities within the Department of Commerce. Its mission is to foster the conditions for the economic growth and technological advancement of the US commercial space industry." The department serves as the "lead civil agency" for civilian space policy.
    Highly recommended for space geeks and business entrepreneurs looking to sell into, but not necessarily live in, the highly lucrative US market.

    4. Space Lobbyists, Advocates, Activists and Groups

    There are a lot of space advocates in Canada.
    Some of them are affiliated with academic institutions while others are more business focused. Some are wrapped around specific ideas and concepts such as the "open source" development of space missions/ equipment or "working in space" or something else. 
    A few are tied to activities such as launching rockets, building satellites, raising money for scientific research or organizing public presentations.
    Below is a representative sampling of some of the more interesting organizations in this category.

    The Aerospace Industries Association of Canada (AIAC) - The biggest and most important player in this list.
    A not-for-profit business association and lobby group focused on aerospace policy issues that have a direct impact on aerospace and space companies and jobs in Canada. 
    AIAC was heavily involved in the November 2012 Aerospace Review (the second volume, titled "Reaching Higher: Canada's Interests and Future in Space" focused almost entirely on the Canadian space industry and has become the default operational manual for current Canadian Space Agency activities). Also of note is the September 2016 AIAC white paper on "The Future of Canada’s Space Sector: An Engine of Innovation For Over Fifty Years."
    AIAC has strong connections with the Consortium for Research and Innovation in Aerospace in Québec (CRIAQ), the Consortium for Aerospace Research and Innovation in Canada (CARIC), the British Columbia Aviation Council (BCAC), the Ontario Aerospace Council (OAC) and most of the other Canadian industry advocacy groups. Membership lists are available through the annual AIAC guide to Canada's Aerospace Industry. AIAC organizes a variety of events, including the annual Canadian Aerospace Summit, typically held each November in Ottawa, ON.
    The Astronomy and Space Exploration Society (ASX) - Engineering and science students often receive their first opportunity to meet industry executives and university academics by participating in campus clubs like this non-profit, student run organization at the University of Toronto. ASX is best known for its annual "Expanding Canada" symposiums held in Toronto every January.

    The AstroNut's Kids Space Club - A space focused educational group for elementary school students created in May 2010 by the father/ son team of Ray and Brett Bielecki.
    The various "missions" of spaceship "Mercury One" and its successor "Mercury Two" have been profiled on CBC, CTV, CITY-TV, A-Channel, the Daily Planet (for the Discovery Channel) and Rogers TV. 
    Best known for its annual "What's Up in Space Camp and STEM Conference," which is targeted to elementary and secondary school students.
    The Calgary Space Workers Society - A local, Alberta based advocacy group focused on how "to live and work in space." which rose to prominence 2007 after hosting the "2007 Canadian Space Summit," at the University of Calgary, but maintained a lower profile since then. Still active and operating as a "science club."

    The Canadian Association of Rocketry and its listing of affiliated organizations - Who says that Canadian's don't build rockets? Certainly not the members of these self-supporting, non-profit clubs focused around building rockets and promoting the development of amateur rocketry in Canada.

    The Canadian Advanced Technology Alliance (CATA Alliance) – The largest hi-tech association in Canada.
    Not specifically an aerospace or space focused organization, but knowledgeable on many of the same taxation and innovation issues faced by aerospace.

    Originally focused on software and telecommunications, the organization also provides good background material on government programs related to innovation, such as the Federal government Scientific Research and Experimental Development (SR&ED) tax credit and the CATA Innovation Nation National Campaign (designed to boost Canada’s competitiveness and innovation rankings).
    The Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute (CASI) - A nonprofit technical organization for aeronautics, space and remote sensing.
    CASI is another of the big players straddling the Canadian landscape, with a storied history built around strong business and international partnerships.

    CASI hosts and contributes to a variety of local and international events including the 65th International Astronautics Congress (IAC), which was held in Toronto from September 29th - October 3rd, 2014; the 2016 CASI ASTRO conference, which was held in Ottawa, Ontario from May 17th - 19th, 2016; and the recent 2018 CASI ASTRO conference, which was held in Quebec City, PQ from May 15th - 17th, 2018.
    The Canadian Association of Science Centres (CASC) - An organization promoting and encouraging public involvement and funding for Canada's public science centres.
    CASC includes over forty member institutions and organizes a variety of events during the year. 
    The Canadian Astronomical Society (CASCA) – Academic focused organization founded in 1971 and incorporated in 1983 as a society of astronomers devoted "to the promotion and advancement of knowledge of the universe through research and education."
    The CASCA Joint Committee on Space Astronomy advises the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) on matters pertaining to the space astronomy segment of the CSA space science program, including priorities, areas of research, selection mechanisms, funding areas and the extent of funding.
    The Canadian Remote Sensing Society (CRSS-SCT) - Focused on Canadian activities relating to geomatics (the discipline of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering geographic information, or spatially referenced information), this scientific association organizes conferences and publishes (in conjuction with CASI) the Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing (CJRS)

    The Canadian Satellite Design Challenge - A privately funded, biannual event focused on teams of Canadian university students (undergraduate and graduate) who design and build an operational small-satellite, based on commercially-available, "off-the-shelf" components.
    As outlined in the November 30th, 2017 post, "Update on the 2017 Canadian Satellite Design Challenge," while the CSDC is still active, there is quite a bit of overlap between what the CSDC has been doing with university student run teams since 2011 (without large amounts of funding) and the Canadian Cubesat Project, well funded CSA program to fund and launch a series of fifteen university designed and built cube-sats over the next several years.
    The Canadian Science Policy Centre (CSPC) - Passionate professionals from industry, academia, and science-based governmental departments focused on "building bridges between science, policy and society."
    The centre also organizes the annual Canadian Science Policy Conference, a well attended event featuring a variety of knowledgeable academic and government experts.

    Until now, the CSPC hasn't really focused on private sector research and development (R&D), which is kinda odd since, as outlined in the recently released Council of Canadian Academies (CCA) report, "Competing in a Global Innovation Economy: The Current State of R&D in Canada," the majority of Canadian based R&D is performed by the private sector. Perhaps that focus will change over the next little while.
    The Canadian Space Commerce Association (CSCA) – As outlined in the July 19th, 2018 post, "Requiem For the Canadian Space Commerce Association," the CSCA disbanded in July 2018.
    But for eleven years, it was a registered Canadian not-for-profit industry organization existing "to advance the economic, legal and political environment for space and aerospace focused companies," according to its website.
    It organized meetings for the hobbyist, the academic and (sometimes) the entrepreneur. Ex-executive director Michelle Mendes was also a member of the ill-fated Space Advisory Board (SAB).
    The Canadian Space Society (CSS) – A small, but well respected charity created to promote Canadian space activities.
    Functions mostly as a "big tent," organization for those with a general interest in the CSA and space activities. 
    Has organized the annual Canadian Space Summit since 2008.
    DontLetGoCanada - Federal lobby group "representing industry, academia and the space enthusiast community" attempting to "secure Canada’s place in space by putting forward a funded space strategy."
    In practical terms, the goal of the group is to secure Federal government funding for a "3rd generation" Canadarm to contribute to the US Lunar Gateway, a project expected to cost $2Bln CDN or more over the next ten years.
    As outlined in the October 22nd, 2018 post, "The Difference Between Maxar/ MDA, AIAC and Almost Everyone Else in the #DontLetGoCanada Campaign," the organization was created by Aerospace Industries Association of Canada (AIAC) President Jim Quick and Brampton ON based MDA Group President Mike Greenley who co-signed an e-mail sent out to executives at 60+ aerospace organization advocating for increased Federal funding in August 2018, which led to the creation of the #DontLetGoCanada coalition in October 2018.
    MDA, a subsidiary of Westminster Colorado bested Maxar Technologies (and the current owner of most, but maybe not all, of the original Canadarm intellectual property) is expected to receive the lion's share of any new Canadarm funding. 
    Engineers Canada - The national organization of the 12 provincial and territorial associations that regulate the profession of engineering in Canada and license the country's more than 260,000 members of the engineering profession.
    The organization also issues national position statements on key issues relating to the public interest, including infrastructure, labour mobility and regulating the profession.
    The Geological Association of Canada - A national geo-science society, publisher and distributor of geo-science books and journals.
    The association also holds a variety of conferences, meetings and exhibitions for the discussion of geological problems.
    Hacklab.TO - One of a number of small Canadian organizations like the Interaccess Electronic Media Arts Centre, the Kwartzlab Makerspace, the Makerkids non-profit workshop space for kids, Think|Haus, the Site 3 coLaboratoryUnLab and others who focus on the technologies associated with open source additive manufacturing/ 3-D printing.

    The North York Astronomy Association (NYAA) - This Ontario based club is the organizer of the annual StarFest star party, which is recognized as one of the world's top 10 gatherings of amateur astronomers for the purpose of observing the sky.

    The OpenLuna Foundation - A privately funded public outreach program (officially a US based 501(c) 3) to encourage the use of open-source tools and methodologies (open design) for space focused activities.
    Once quite active, but has mostly slipped under the radar since 2010. The founding member and project manager/ director of the organization is Paul Graham, who lives in London, Ontario.
    The Planetary Society Canada - A subgroup of the larger US based Planetary Society. a non-government, nonprofit organization involved in research and engineering projects related to astronomy, planetary science, exploration, public outreach, and political advocacy, which was founded in 1980 by Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray, and Louis Friedman.
    The current CEO is Bill Nye who, as outlined in the March 6th, 2018 Global News post, "Justin Trudeau, Bill Nye talk pipeline politics, Kinder Morgan in post-budget meeting," recently shared the stage with Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to talk science and politics.

    Planetary Society global community outreach consultant Kate Howells was also a member of the ill-fated Space Advisory Board (SAB).
    The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada (RASC) - 4,800 members, including about 500 "unattached" members from remote parts of Canada and around the world and strong chapters in Vancouver and 28 other centres across the country makes RASC one of Canada's largest space and astronomy advocacy groups.
    Since 2009, the organization has purchased the David Dunlap Observatory in Richmond Hill, Ontario and SkyNews; the Canadian Magazine of Astronomy and Stargazing. An underrated and successful gem, mostly hiding in the much larger, Canadian landscape.
    The Royal Canadian Institute for Science (RCIS Science) - The oldest scientific society in Canada. RCIScience is a registered charity, funded through contributions and sponsorships from universities, corporations and individuals to provide a platform for public engagement with leading scientists.
    It was founded in Toronto in 1849 by a small group of civil engineers, architects and surveyors led by Sandford Fleming (1827-1915). 
    Fleming eventually became one of the most prominent Canadians of his time, responsible for the planning and building of the transcontinental railway and for the concept of standard time.
    Science Rendezvous - A "grassroots" not-for-profit organization and public platform to promote science awareness and increase science literacy in Canada. Holds the yearly, spring Science Rendezvous at the University of Toronto, St. George campus.

    Space Canada – A not-for-profit organization dedicated to the promotion of solar energy from space.
    Organized the 2009 Symposium on Solar Energy from Space and the recent 2018 International Symposium and Workshop on Space Solar Power, which was held in conjunction with the National Space Society (NSS) International Space Development Conference (ISDC 2018), held in Los Angeles, CA from May 23rd - 27th, 2018.
    Space Canada president and CEO George Dietrich has a long history of supporting and funding US and Canadian space activists and their activities. 
    Space Matters - Another new, relatively well funded group begun with a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) PromoScience grant in 2018 to the Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration (CPSX) at Western University.
    The outreach organization, encourages an increased awareness of space activities because "most (Canadians) are relatively unaware of how space technologies pervade their everyday life."
    Students for the Exploration and Development of Space (SEDS) Canadian chapter - Part of an international group of student-run organizations dedicated to promoting public interest in space through the use of unique projects, research programs, and professional development opportunities in the Canadian space industry.
    SEDS is involved in a number of scientific and academic activities relating to the space program including the Canadian Reduced Gravity Experiment Design Challenge, the Canadian Stratospheric Balloon Experiment, the Act In Space business competition and the MarSat Competition sponsored by the Society of Satellite Professionals International (SSPI).
    The organization was founded September 1980, primarily by Peter Diamandis, Scott Scharfman, Richard Sorkin, Robert D. Richards and Todd B. Hawley. Other countries with active SEDS groups include the US, the UK and India.
    The Toronto International Space Apps Challenge - An annual "hackathon" organized yearly as part of the NASA International Space Apps Challenge.

    Toronto Students for the Advancement of Aerospace (TSAA) - Another of the multitude of inter-university student organization striving to promote the advancement of aerospace through student leadership and hands-on initiatives plus serve as the student's first academic contact point to the wider world of academics and business.

    The University of Toronto Aerospace Team (UTAT) - One of the more successful campus clubs focused on the building of aerospace focused projects for international competitions, but otherwise typical of clubs found on most college and university campuses with science and engineering faculties.
    Last profiled in the April 3rd, 2017 post, "UofT Undergraduate Satellite Builders Raise Almost $500K to Build & Launch a Microsatellite in 2019."


    1. I just wanted to say thank you for posting this set of resources, it has been very helpful in helping me become familiar with the space industry! I am a FSWEP student currently researching aerospace and space policies, industry and government initiatives, and Canada's place in these two sectors - you are a life-saver!

    2. You have given the very impressive information about the space materials. Also can you explain about the list of top space research center in the below mentioned article List of top-space-research-center agency

    3. Perhaps we will. Until then, we've included your link.

    4. Nice information. We have been developing a NewSpace Mission Design software that could support Canada industries and education (free for universities and students). You can sign up easily here :


    Support our Patreon Page